During the 11th century the Druze faith emerged from a branch of Shia Islam.
The new faith gained followers in the southern portion of Mount Lebanon.
The Canaanite-Phoenicians are also known as the inventors of the alphabet, among many other things.
The area of present-day Lebanon and the wider Eastern Mediterranean were subjugated by Cyrus in 539 BCE.
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Umyayad, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires.The crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and finally to the Ottoman Empire in 1517.Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking.The borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920.The Persians forced some of its population to migrate to Carthage, which remained a powerful nation until the Second Punic War.After two centuries of Persian rule, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great attacked and burned Tyre, the most prominent Phoenician city.Lebanon was a part of northern Canaan, and consequently became the homeland of Canaanite descendants – the Phoenicians, a seafaring people who spread across the Mediterranean before the rise of Cyrus the Great.Their most famous colonies were Carthage in what is present-day Tunisia and Cádiz in present-day Spain.During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome.The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.